Perjalanan Umroh VIP di Jakarta Utara Hubungi 021-9929-2337 atau 0821-2406-5740 Alhijaz Indowisata adalah perusahaan swasta nasional yang bergerak di bidang tour dan travel. Nama Alhijaz terinspirasi dari istilah dua kota suci bagi umat islam pada zaman nabi Muhammad saw. yaitu Makkah dan Madinah. Dua kota yang penuh berkah sehingga diharapkan menular dalam kinerja perusahaan. Sedangkan Indowisata merupakan akronim dari kata indo yang berarti negara Indonesia dan wisata yang menjadi fokus usaha bisnis kami.

Perjalanan Umroh VIP di Jakarta Utara Alhijaz Indowisata didirikan oleh Bapak H. Abdullah Djakfar Muksen pada tahun 2010. Merangkak dari kecil namun pasti, alhijaz berkembang pesat dari mulai penjualan tiket maskapai penerbangan domestik dan luar negeri, tour domestik hingga mengembangkan ke layanan jasa umrah dan haji khusus. Tak hanya itu, pada tahun 2011 Alhijaz kembali membuka divisi baru yaitu provider visa umrah yang bekerja sama dengan muassasah arab saudi. Sebagai komitmen legalitas perusahaan dalam melayani pelanggan dan jamaah secara aman dan profesional, saat ini perusahaan telah mengantongi izin resmi dari pemerintah melalui kementrian pariwisata, lalu izin haji khusus dan umrah dari kementrian agama. Selain itu perusahaan juga tergabung dalam komunitas organisasi travel nasional seperti Asita, komunitas penyelenggara umrah dan haji khusus yaitu HIMPUH dan organisasi internasional yaitu IATA.

Perjalanan Umroh VIP di Jakarta Utara

saco-indonesia.com, Hujan deras yang telah mengguyur wilayah selatan Jakarta telah membuat arus lalu lintas semrawut. Kemacetan

saco-indonesia.com, Hujan deras yang telah mengguyur wilayah selatan Jakarta telah membuat arus lalu lintas semrawut. Kemacetan tak hanya terjadi di jalan utama saja namun juga berimbas ke jalur alternatif menuju Jakarta.

Seperti yang telah terjadi di Jalan Karang Tengah, Lebak Bulus Jakarta Selatan. Jalur yang biasa digunakan sebagai jalan alternatif warga yang ingin ke wilayah selatan Jakarta ini juga macet parah.

Bahkan, kendaraan roda empat yang telah melintas di wilayah itu stuck selama dua jam. Kondisi cuaca di wilayah itu yang gerimis kian telah menambah acakadutnya jalanan ibukota di pagi ini.

"Saya juga sudah dua jam stuck di sini. Saya mau ke arah Pondok Labu," kata seorang pengendara Eko kepada Okezone, selasa (4/2/2014).

Namun untuk jalur sebaliknya terlihat lancar. Sayangnya kepadatan kendaraan yang telah melintas di Karang Tengah tidak dibarengi dengan petugas pengatur lalu lintas. Sehingga jalanan semakin mampet.

Saat ini hujan juga telah mengguyur wilayah Sawangan, Depok. Akibatnya, Jalan Raya Sawangan yang biasa digunakan warga dari arah Parung dan Sawangan untuk menuju Jakarta juga menjadi tersendat.


Editor : Dian Sukmawati

LISt Harga Bahan Bangunan 2013   PASIR Pasir Putih bangka / m3 : Rp. 265.000 Pasir Putih Bangka / pick up : Rp.

LISt Harga Bahan Bangunan 2013

 

PASIR

Pasir Putih bangka / m3 : Rp. 265.000

Pasir Putih Bangka / pick up : Rp. 600.000

Pasir Putih Bangka / truk : Rp. 1.550.000

Pasir Mundu (per m3) : Rp. 250.000

Pasir Cileungsi / m3 : Rp. 200.000

BATU

Split / pick up : Rp. 265.000

Batako Semen Besar / buah : Rp. 2.500

Batu Bata Merah ( biasa )/ buah : Rp. 500

Batu Bata Merah ( oven ) / buah : Rp. 650

Batu Kali Belah / m3 : Rp. 185.000

Batu Knecker / m3 : Rp. 200.000

BATU ALAM

Batu Candi ( 30 x 30 ) / m2 : Rp. 150.000

Batu Andesit ( 30 x 30 ) / m2 : Rp. 180.000

Batu Pancawarna / 25 kg : Rp. 75.000

Batu Bali / 10 kg : Rp. 70.000

SEMEN

Semen Holcim ( 40 kg ) : Rp. 65.000

Semen Holcim ( 50 kg ) : Rp. 75.000

Semen Tiga Roda ( 50 kg ) : Rp. 70.000

Semen Padang ( 50 kg ) : Rp. 65.000

MU – 100 Plester Premium ( 40 kg ) : Rp. 65.000

MU – 200 Acian Plester & Beton ( 5 kg ) : Rp. 25.000

MU – 301 Pasangan Bata + Plester ( 10 kg ) : Rp. 25.000

MU – 450 Perekat Keramik Lantai ( 5 kg ) : Rp. 35.000

MU – Finish Coat Repair ( 25 kg ) : Rp. 335.000

Selain info bahan bangunan 2013, silahkat lihat homepage kami untuk tips dan informasi renovasi rumah

HEBEL

Blok Reguler Tebal 10 mm (per m3) : Rp 610.000

Blok Jumbo (per m3) : Rp 580.000

Anak Tangga (per m3) : Rp 2.300.000

Panel (per m3) : Rp 320.000

BESI BETON

Diameter 6mm/batang  : Rp 23.500

Diameter 8mm / batang : Rp 35.000 (TYS ), Rp. 38.000 ( HJ ), Rp. 25.500 ( SP )

Diameter 10mm/batang :  Rp. 53.000 ( TYS ), Rp. 52.000 ( HJ ), Rp. 48.000 ( SP )

Diameter 12mm /batang :  Rp. 80.000 ( HJ ), Rp. 77.000 ( TYS )

Diameter 16mm (12m) :  Rp 145.000

Besi Hollow ( 20 x 40 ) : Rp. 18.000

Besi Hollow ( 40 x 40 ) : Rp. 24.000

Seng Gelombang ( 182 x 91 x 0.2 ) : Rp. 36.000

Plat Alumunium ( 2 x 1 x 0.2 tebal ) : Rp. 35.000

Plat alumunium / meter : Rp. 20.000

PAKU KAYU

Paku kayu uk. 2 cm / kg : Rp. 18.000

Paku Kayu uk. 2.5 cm / kg : Rp. 17.000

Paku Kayu uk. 3 cm / kg : Rp. 16.000

Paku Kayu uk. 4 cm / kg : Rp. 15.000

Paku Kayu uk. 5 cm / kg : Rp. 14.000

Paku Kayu uk. 7 cm / kg : Rp. 14.000

Paku Kayu uk. 10 cm / kg : Rp. 14.000

TRIPLEK

Tebal 3mm  : Rp 40.000

Tebal 4mm  : Rp 50.000

Tebal 6mm : Rp 65.000

Tebal 9mm : Rp 100.000

Tebal 12mm : Rp 135.000

Tebal 15mm : Rp 175.000

Tebal 18mm : Rp 195.000

GRC BOARD : Rp. 50.000

PAKU BETON PUTIH

Ukuran 2.5 cm / kg : Rp. 34.000

Ukuran 3 cm / kg : Rp. 34.000

Ukuran 4 cm / kg : Rp. 34.000

Ukuran 5 cm / kg : Rp. 34.000

Ukuran 6 cm / kg : Rp. 32.000

Ukuran 7 cm / kg : Rp. 32.000

Ukuran 10 cm / kg : Rp. 32.000

Ukuran 12.5 cm / kg : Rp. 32.000

PAKU BETON HITAM

Ukuran 3 cm / kg : Rp. 17.500

Ukuran 5 cm / kg : Rp. 16.000

Ukuran 7 cm / kg : Rp. 14.000

Selain info bahan bangunan 2013, silahkat lihat homepage kami untuk tips dan informasi renovasi rumah

KACA

A. Kaca Bening

Tebal 3 mm  : Rp 80.000

Tebal 5 mm  : Rp 87.500

Tebal 8 mm  : Rp 140.000

Tebal 10 mm : Rp 200.000

B. Kaca Rayben

Tebal 3 mm : Rp 65.000

Tebal 5 mm  : Rp 62.500

Tebal 6 mm  : Rp 125.000

Tebal 8 mm : Rp 220.000

C. Kaca Tempered

Kaca Clear tempered 5 mm ( m2 ) : Rp. 200.000

Kaca Clear tempered 6 mm ( m2 ) : Rp. 250.500

Kaca Clear tempered 8 mm ( m2 ) : Rp. 375.000

Kaca Clear tempered 10 mm ( m2 ) : Rp. 400.000

Kaca Clear tempered 12 mm ( m2 ) : Rp. 450.000

Kaca Clear tempered 15 mm ( m2 ) : Rp. 1.950.000

Kaca Clear tempered 19 mm ( m2 ) : rp. 2.450.000

PAPAN FIBER SEMEN / TRIPLEK

A. GRC

GRC / Versaboard 4.0 mm ( 1.20 x 2.40 ) /lembar : Rp. 53.500

GRC / Versaboard 6.0 mm ( 1.20 x 2.40 )/lembar : Rp. 93.500

GRC / Versaboard 9.0 mm ( 1.20 x 2.40 ) /lembar : rp. 129.000

B. TRIPLEK

Tebal 3 mm / lembar : Rp. 42.000

Tebal 4 mm / lembar : Rp. 53.000

Tebal 6 mm / lembar : Rp. 95.000

Tebal 9 mm / lembar : Rp. 110.000

Tebal 12 mm / lembar : Rp. 150.000

Tebal 15 mm / lembar : Rp. 190.000

Tebal 18 mm / lembar : Rp. 235.000

C. GYPSUM

Jayaboard 9 mm ( 1.20 x 2.40 ) / lembar : Rp. 57.000

Elephant 9 mm ( 1.20 x 2.40 ) / lembar : Rp. 56.000

Knauf 9 mm ( 1.20 x 2.40 ) / lembar : Rp. 53.500

Star 9 mm ( 1.20 x 2.40 ) / lembar : Rp. 53.000

Aplus 9 mm ( 1.20 x 2.40 ) / lembar : Rp. 52.500

KAYU

A. Reng

Meranti (2×3) per batang  : Rp 15.000

Meranti (3×4) per batang  : Rp 17.500

Borneo (2×3) per batang : Rp 20.500

Borneo (3×4) per batang : Rp 22.000

Kamper (2×3) per batang : Rp 17.000

Kamper (3×4) per batang : Rp 20.500

B. Kaso

Meranti (4×6) per batang Rp 32.500

Meranti (5×7) per batang Rp 39.000

Borneo (4×6) per batang Rp 28.000

Borneo (5×7) per batang Rp 43.000

Kamper (4×6) per batang Rp 50.000

Kamper (5×7) per batang Rp 70.000

C. Galar

Meranti (5×10) per batang Rp 60.000

Borneo (5×10) per batang Rp 60.000

Kamper (5×10) per batang Rp 95.000

D. Balok

Meranti (6×12) per batang Rp 80.000

Meranti (8×12) per batang Rp 125.000

Borneo (6×12) per batang Rp 80.000

Borneo (8×12) per batang Rp 100.000

Kamper (6×12) per batang Rp 185.000

Kamper (8×12) per batang Rp 210.000

Selain info bahan bangunan 2013, silahkat lihat homepage kami untuk tips dan informasi renovasi rumah

CAT TEMBOK

A. Interior

Dulux Pearl Glo (2,5 lt ) Rp. 180.000

Dulux Pentalite Standard Colour ( 2,5 lt ) Rp. 137.000

Dulux Weather Shield Exterior/Brilliant white ( 2,5 lt ) Rp. 215.000

Dulux (2,5 lt) Rp 117.500

Dulux (20 lt) Rp 850.000

Mowilex ( 1 lt ) Rp. 60.000

Mowilex (2,5 lt) Rp 130.000

Mowilex (20 lt) Rp. 915.000

Catylac (5 kg) Rp 93.500

Catylac (25 kg) Rp 355.000

Avitex ( 5 kg ) Rp. 73.500

Vinilex (5 kg) Rp 75.000

Vinilex (25 kg) Rp 445.000

Metrolite ( 1 kg ) Rp. 24.000

Metrolite (3 lt) Rp 78.000

Metrolite ( 16 ltr / pail) Rp 380.000

Matex ( 4kg) Rp 60.000

Matex (25 kg) Rp 295.000

Profitex (5 kg) Rp 26.500

Profitex (25 kg) Rp 120.000

B. Eksterior

Dulux (2,5 lt) Rp 187.500

Dulux (20 lt) Rp 1.285.000

Mowilex (2,5 lt) Rp 160.000

Mowilex (20 lt) Rp 1.250.000

CAT KAYU

Dulux 1 kg Rp 35.000

Mowilex 1 kg Rp 60.000

Catylac 1 kg Rp 35.000

Glotex 1 kg Rp 35.000

Emco 1 kg Rp 35.000

Globe Supergloss Rp 43.000

Selain info bahan bangunan 2013, silahkat lihat homepage kami untuk tips dan informasi renovasi rumah

GENTENG KERAMIK

Kanmuri Milenio (Double Interlocking)

- Warna Natural Rp 5.700

- Warna Standard Rp 6.500

- Warna Spesial Rp 8.500

- Warna Exclusive Rp 11.500

Kanmuri Espancia

- Warna Natural Rp 5.500

- Warna Standard Rp 8.700

- Warna Spesial Rp 9.700

- Warna Exclusive Rp 10.500

M Class (Double Interlocking)

- Warna Natural Rp 5.500

- Warna Standard Rp 6.000

- Warna Spesial Rp 8.000

- Warna Premium Rp 11.000

- Genteng Knok Natural Rp 15.000

GENTENG BETON

- Morando Rp. 3.750,-/pc (20pcs/m2)

- Berglazur Rp 3.500,-

- Natural Rp 2.000

- Moner Rp 5.350,- (9pcs/m2)

IDEAL

- Berglazur Rp 2.650/pc

- Natural Rp 1.750/pc

GENTENG METAL

Sun Roof Venus

Ukuran 38,5 x 80 cm S/S Rp 23.000

Ukuran 38,5 x 80 cm D/S Rp 27.500

Sun Roof Pluto

Ukuran 38,5 x 80 cm S/S Rp 17.500

Ukuran 38,5 x 80 cm D/S Rp 20.000

ASBES

Jabesmen

150×105 (per lembar gelombang kecil) Rp 40.000

180×105 (per lembar gelombang kecil) Rp 45.000

210×105 (per lembar gelombang kecil) Rp 50.000

240×105 (per lembar gelombang kecil) Rp 55.500

270×105 (per lembar gelombang kecil) Rp 65.000

300×105 (per lembar gelombang kecil) Rp 75.000

SENG GELOMBANG

Seng Plat

Tebal 0.20 Rp 27.500

Tebal 0.25 Rp 37.500

Tebal 0.30 Rp 42.500

Seng Gelombang

Tebal 0.20 Rp 49.000

Tebal 0.30 Rp 59.000

Selain info bahan bangunan 2013, silahkat lihat homepage kami untuk tips dan informasi renovasi rumah

PIPA PVC

- Wavin 0,5 inci Rp 17.500

0,75 inci Rp 22.000

1 inci Rp 30.000

2 inci Rp 65.000

3 inci Rp 120.000

4 inci Rp 200.000

- Rucika 0,5 inci Rp 25.000

1 inci Rp 45.000

2 inci Rp 52.500

4 inci Rp 168.000

8 inci Rp 635.000

- Lucky

0,5 inci Rp 8.500

0,75 inci Rp 13.000

1 inci Rp 15.000

2 inci Rp 33.000

3 inci Rp 64.000

4 inci Rp 103.000

- Unggul

0,5 inci Rp 8.500

0,75 inci Rp 11.000

1 inci Rp 15.000

2 inci Rp 27.000

3 inci Rp 40.000

4 inci Rp 55.000

- Maspion

0,5 inci Rp 13.500

0,75 inci Rp 16.500

1 inci Rp 21.500

2 inci Rp 51.500

3 inci Rp 100.000

4 inci Rp 150.000

Selain info bahan bangunan 2013, silahkat lihat homepage kami untuk tips dan informasi renovasi rumah

KERAMIK LANTAI ARWANA

20×20

Tua Rp 35.000

Muda Rp 34.000

30×30

Putih Rp 30.000

Marble Rp 32.000

Fancy Rp 37.500

40×40

Putih Rp 30.000

Marble Rp 33.000

LANTAI KAYU

Kronotec (per meter) Rp 225.000

HDM Glossy (per boks) Rp 550.000

KERAMIK DINDING

20×20

Roman

(putih) Rp 50.000

(motif) Rp 55.000

Masterina

(putih) Rp 40.000

(motif) Rp 50.000

KIA

(putih) Rp 37.500

(motif) Rp 42.500

20×25

Mulia

(warna muda) Rp 45.000

(warna tua) Rp 50.000

IKAD

(warna muda) Rp 42.500

(warna tua) Rp 52.500

Roman

25×33 Roman Rp 50.000

33×50 Roman Rp 80.000

30×30 Hercules (putih) Rp 42.500

Acura (putih) Rp 35.000

KIG (warna) Rp 40.000

KIA (warna) Rp 40.000

60 x 60 Platinum Rp 125.000

30 x 60 Platinum Rp 75.000

58 x 58 Platinum Rp 110.000

Selain info bahan bangunan 2013, silahkat lihat homepage kami untuk tips dan informasi renovasi rumah

SANITARI

KLOSET DUDUK

Sanremo Classis CCST Rp 1.325.000

Lexington Rp 3.500.000

Granada 3000 CCST Rp 1.275.000

Granada II Space CCST Rp 1.500.000

Projecta Rp 1.000.000

KLOSET JONGKOK

Rapi EX Squat Rp 250.000

WASTAFEL/LAVATORY

San Remo 55 Lava & Pedestal Rp 650.000

Studio 3000 Lava & Pedestal Rp 475.000

Studio 50 Lavatory Rp 250.000

Studio 45 Lavatory Rp 200.000

GRANIT

Impero 40×40 Rp 125.000

Granito 40×40 Rp 210.000

Inesa 40×40 Rp 175.000

Niro 40×40 Rp 160.000

Essenza 40×40 Rp 175.000

KUNCI

Firo Rp 275.000

Napoli Rp 30.000

Romaco Rp 65.000

Ferza Rp 33.500

Top Rp 30.000

Paloma Rp 420.000

Yale Rp 125.000

Beluci Rp 130.000

Note : Kami tidak menjual bahan bangunan diatas, Daftar Harga Bangunan yang kami masukkan dalam blog ini  sifatnya sebagai Info dan acuan untuk membantu membuat anggaran atau estimasi dalam membangun dan merenovasi rumah. Koreksi mengenai perubahan /perbedaan harga dari teman-teman akan sangat kami hargai.......

Mr. Tepper was not a musical child and had no formal training, but he grew up to write both lyrics and tunes, trading off duties with the other member of the team, Roy C. Bennett.

HOBART, Tasmania — Few places seem out of reach for China’s leader, Xi Jinping, who has traveled from European capitals to obscure Pacific and Caribbean islands in pursuit of his nation’s strategic interests.

So perhaps it was not surprising when he turned up last fall in this city on the edge of the Southern Ocean to put down a long-distance marker in another faraway region, Antarctica, 2,000 miles south of this Australian port.

Standing on the deck of an icebreaker that ferries Chinese scientists from this last stop before the frozen continent, Mr. Xi pledged that China would continue to expand in one of the few places on earth that remain unexploited by humans.

He signed a five-year accord with the Australian government that allows Chinese vessels and, in the future, aircraft to resupply for fuel and food before heading south. That will help secure easier access to a region that is believed to have vast oil and mineral resources; huge quantities of high-protein sea life; and for times of possible future dire need, fresh water contained in icebergs.

It was not until 1985, about seven decades after Robert Scott and Roald Amundsen raced to the South Pole, that a team representing Beijing hoisted the Chinese flag over the nation’s first Antarctic research base, the Great Wall Station on King George Island.

But now China seems determined to catch up. As it has bolstered spending on Antarctic research, and as the early explorers, especially the United States and Australia, confront stagnant budgets, there is growing concern about its intentions.

China’s operations on the continent — it opened its fourth research station last year, chose a site for a fifth, and is investing in a second icebreaker and new ice-capable planes and helicopters — are already the fastest growing of the 52 signatories to the Antarctic Treaty. That gentlemen’s agreement reached in 1959 bans military activity on the continent and aims to preserve it as one of the world’s last wildernesses; a related pact prohibits mining.

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But Mr. Xi’s visit was another sign that China is positioning itself to take advantage of the continent’s resource potential when the treaty expires in 2048 — or in the event that it is ripped up before, Chinese and Australian experts say.

“So far, our research is natural-science based, but we know there is more and more concern about resource security,” said Yang Huigen, director general of the Polar Research Institute of China, who accompanied Mr. Xi last November on his visit to Hobart and stood with him on the icebreaker, Xue Long, or Snow Dragon.

With that in mind, the polar institute recently opened a new division devoted to the study of resources, law, geopolitics and governance in Antarctica and the Arctic, Mr. Yang said.

Australia, a strategic ally of the United States that has strong economic relations with China, is watching China’s buildup in the Antarctic with a mix of gratitude — China’s presence offers support for Australia’s Antarctic science program, which is short of cash — and wariness.

“We should have no illusions about the deeper agenda — one that has not even been agreed to by Chinese scientists but is driven by Xi, and most likely his successors,” said Peter Jennings, executive director of the Australian Strategic Policy Institute and a former senior official in the Australian Department of Defense.

“This is part of a broader pattern of a mercantilist approach all around the world,” Mr. Jennings added. “A big driver of Chinese policy is to secure long-term energy supply and food supply.”

That approach was evident last month when a large Chinese agriculture enterprise announced an expansion of its fishing operations around Antarctica to catch more krill — small, protein-rich crustaceans that are abundant in Antarctic waters.

“The Antarctic is a treasure house for all human beings, and China should go there and share,” Liu Shenli, the chairman of the China National Agricultural Development Group, told China Daily, a state-owned newspaper. China would aim to fish up to two million tons of krill a year, he said, a substantial increase from what it currently harvests.

Because sovereignty over Antarctica is unclear, nations have sought to strengthen their claims over the ice-covered land by building research bases and naming geographic features. China’s fifth station will put it within reach of the six American facilities, and ahead of Australia’s three.

Chinese mappers have also given Chinese names to more than 300 sites, compared with the thousands of locations on the continent with English names.

In the unspoken competition for Antarctica’s future, scientific achievement can also translate into influence. Chinese scientists are driving to be the first to drill and recover an ice core containing tiny air bubbles that provide a record of climate change stretching as far back as 1.5 million years. It is an expensive and delicate effort at which others, including the European Union and Australia, have failed.

In a breakthrough a decade ago, European scientists extracted an ice core nearly two miles long that revealed 800,000 years of climate history. But finding an ice core going back further would allow scientists to examine a change in the earth’s climate cycles believed to have occurred 900,000 to 1.2 million years ago.

China is betting it has found the best location to drill, at an area called Dome A, or Dome Argus, the highest point on the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. Though it is considered one of the coldest places on the planet, with temperatures of 130 degrees below zero Fahrenheit, a Chinese expedition explored the area in 2005 and established a research station in 2009.

“The international community has drilled in lots of places, but no luck so far,” said Xiao Cunde, a member of the first party to reach the site and the deputy director of the Institute for Climate Change at the Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences. “We think at Dome A we will have a straight shot at the one-million-year ice core.”

Mr. Xiao said China had already begun drilling and hoped to find what scientists are looking for in four to five years.

To support its Antarctic aspirations, China is building a sophisticated $300 million icebreaker that is expected to be ready in a few years, said Xia Limin, deputy director of the Chinese Arctic and Antarctic Administration in Beijing. It has also bought a high-tech fixed-wing aircraft, outfitted in the United States, for taking sensitive scientific soundings from the ice.

China has chosen the site for its fifth research station at Inexpressible Island, named by a group of British explorers who were stranded at the desolate site in 1912 and survived the winter by excavating a small ice cave.

Mr. Xia said the inhospitable spot was ideal because China did not have a presence in that part of Antarctica, and because the rocky site did not have much snow, making it relatively cheap to build there.

Anne-Marie Brady, a professor of political science at the University of Canterbury in New Zealand and the author of a soon-to-be-released book, “China as a Polar Great Power,” said Chinese scientists also believed they had a good chance of finding mineral and energy resources near the site.

“China is playing a long game in Antarctica and keeping other states guessing about its true intentions and interests are part of its poker hand,” she said. But she noted that China’s interest in finding minerals was presented “loud and clear to domestic audiences” as the main reason it was investing in Antarctica.

Because commercial drilling is banned, estimates of energy and mineral resources in Antarctica rely on remote sensing data and comparisons with similar geological environments elsewhere, said Millard F. Coffin, executive director of the Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies in Hobart.

But the difficulty of extraction in such severe conditions and uncertainty about future commodity prices make it unlikely that China or any country would defy the ban on mining anytime soon.

Tourism, however, is already booming. Travelers from China are still a relatively small contingent in the Antarctic compared with the more than 13,000 Americans who visited in 2013, and as yet there are no licensed Chinese tour operators.

But that is about to change, said Anthony Bergin, deputy director of the Australian Strategic Policy Institute. “I understand very soon there will be Chinese tourists on Chinese vessels with all-Chinese crew in the Antarctic,” he said.

 

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